Yo uso Xubuntu 12.04, por tener el escritorio XFCE que me es más cómodo, pero debería servir para cualquier derivado de 12.04

VMware Workstation 8.0.3 da problemas al compilar sus modulos con el kernel 3.2 de Ubuntu 12.04. Para solucionarlo, necesitamos aplicar un parche a los sources de los modulos, que están en /usr/lib/vmware/modules/sources

1. Descargamos el Parche para VMware Workstation 8.0.3 y Ubuntu 12.04
2. Lo descomprimimos y ejecutamos el patch-modules_3.2.0.sh como root

Problema solucionado. He editado el .sh para que no haya que modificar la version de Workstation que busca. Anteriormente habria pasado lo siguiente:

root@yamato:~/Downloads# tar xvf vmware802fixlinux320.tar.gz 
patch-modules_3.2.0.sh
vmware3.2.0.patch
root@yamato:~/Downloads# ./patch-modules_3.2.0.sh 
Sorry, this script is only for VMWare WorkStation 8.0.2 or VMWare Player 4.0.2. Exiting

Ahora con este fix, ya no.

root@yamato:~/Downloads# ./patch-modules_3.2.0.sh 
patching file vmnet-only/filter.c
patching file vmnet-only/netif.c
patching file vmnet-only/userif.c
Stopping VMware services:
   VMware Authentication Daemon                                        done
   VM communication interface socket family                            done
   Virtual machine communication interface                             done
   Virtual machine monitor                                             done
   Blocking file system                                                done
Using 2.6.x kernel build system.
make: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only'
make -C /lib/modules/3.2.0-24-generic/build/include/.. SUBDIRS=$PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= modules
make[1]: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/linux/driver.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/linux/hostif.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/linux/driverLog.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/common/apic.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/common/comport.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/common/cpuid.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/common/hashFunc.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/common/memtrack.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/common/phystrack.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/common/task.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/common/vmx86.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/vmcore/moduleloop.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/vmmon.o
  Building modules, stage 2.
  MODPOST 1 modules
  CC      /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/vmmon.mod.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only/vmmon.ko
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
make -C $PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= postbuild
make[1]: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only'
make[1]: `postbuild' is up to date.
make[1]: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only'
cp -f vmmon.ko ./../vmmon.o
make: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmmon-only'
Built vmmon module
Using 2.6.x kernel build system.
make: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only'
make -C /lib/modules/3.2.0-24-generic/build/include/.. SUBDIRS=$PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= modules
make[1]: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/driver.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/hub.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/userif.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/netif.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/bridge.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/filter.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/procfs.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/smac_compat.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/smac.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/vnetEvent.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/vnetUserListener.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/vmnet.o
  Building modules, stage 2.
  MODPOST 1 modules
  CC      /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/vmnet.mod.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only/vmnet.ko
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
make -C $PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= postbuild
make[1]: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only'
make[1]: `postbuild' is up to date.
make[1]: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only'
cp -f vmnet.ko ./../vmnet.o
make: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmnet-only'
Built vmnet module
Using 2.6.x kernel build system.
make: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only'
make -C /lib/modules/3.2.0-24-generic/build/include/.. SUBDIRS=$PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= modules
make[1]: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/block.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/control.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/dbllnklst.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/dentry.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/file.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/filesystem.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/inode.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/module.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/stubs.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/linux/super.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/vmblock.o
  Building modules, stage 2.
  MODPOST 1 modules
  CC      /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/vmblock.mod.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only/vmblock.ko
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
make -C $PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= postbuild
make[1]: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only'
make[1]: `postbuild' is up to date.
make[1]: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only'
cp -f vmblock.ko ./../vmblock.o
make: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmblock-only'
Built vmblock module
Using 2.6.x kernel build system.
make: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only'
make -C /lib/modules/3.2.0-24-generic/build/include/.. SUBDIRS=$PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= modules
make[1]: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/linux/driver.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/linux/vmciKernelIf.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciContext.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciDatagram.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciDoorbell.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciDriver.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciEvent.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciHashtable.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciQPair.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciQueuePair.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciResource.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/common/vmciRoute.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/driverLog.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/vmci.o
  Building modules, stage 2.
  MODPOST 1 modules
  CC      /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/vmci.mod.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only/vmci.ko
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
make -C $PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= postbuild
make[1]: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only'
make[1]: `postbuild' is up to date.
make[1]: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only'
cp -f vmci.ko ./../vmci.o
make: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vmci-only'
Built vmci module
Using 2.6.x kernel build system.
make: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only'
make -C /lib/modules/3.2.0-24-generic/build/include/.. SUBDIRS=$PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= modules
make[1]: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/linux/af_vsock.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/linux/notify.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/linux/stats.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/linux/notifyQState.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/linux/util.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/linux/vsockAddr.o
  CC [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/driverLog.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/vsock.o
  Building modules, stage 2.
  MODPOST 1 modules
  CC      /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/vsock.mod.o
  LD [M]  /tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only/vsock.ko
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic'
make -C $PWD SRCROOT=$PWD/. 
	  MODULEBUILDDIR= postbuild
make[1]: Entering directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only'
make[1]: `postbuild' is up to date.
make[1]: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only'
cp -f vsock.ko ./../vsock.o
make: Leaving directory `/tmp/vmware-root/modules/vsock-only'
Built vsock module
Starting VMware services:
   Virtual machine monitor                                             done
   Virtual machine communication interface                             done
   VM communication interface socket family                            done
   Blocking file system                                                done
   Virtual ethernet                                                    done
   VMware Authentication Daemon                                        done
   Shared Memory Available                                             done


All done, you can now run VMWare WorkStation.
Modules sources backup can be found in the '/usr/lib/vmware/modules/source-workstation8.0.3-2012-05-08-10:20:17-backup' directory

Lo que he hecho es editar la version de VMware que el parcheador va a buscar. Nada más.

vmreqver=8.0.3
plreqver=4.0.3